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Maduell F, Vera M, Arias M, Fontseré N, Blasco M, Serra N, Bergadá E, Cases A, Campistol JM

[How much should dialysis time be increased when catheters are used?].

Nefrologia. 2008;28(6):633-6, PMID: 19016637

The use of central catheters in hemodialysis patients as a permanent vascular access has increased during the last years, reaching numbers of around 7% of prevalent patients and between 25% of incident patients. Although the current catheters allow higher sanguineous flows with smaller incidence of infectious complications and dysfunction, the dose of dialysis that is reached is still inferior to that obtained with native arterio-venous fistula (AVF) and grafts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible additional time supposed by dialysis using central venous catheters with respect to habitual vascular access as a consequence of the lesser blood flow (Qb) and the irregularity of its function (frequent lowering of the Qb and necessity of inverting the lines on many occasions). A total of 48 patients (31 men/17 women) with an average age of 61,6 +/- 14 years old (rank: 28-83), 20 with tunnelled catheter and the remaining with AVF, were included in the study. All the patients were dialyzed in the modality of high flux hemodialysis with a polisulphone of 1,9 m2 dialyzer, dialysis time of 240 minutes, dialysate flow 500 ml/min and monitors equipped with ionic dialysance (ID) with the objective of obtaining a Kt of 45 litres with each one of the different vascular accesses. The patients with AVF received 3 sessions, with variations of Qb to 300, 350 and 400 ml/min. The patients with tunnelled catheter received two sessions, to the maximum Qb, one with normal connection and other with inverted one. In the results obtained it is possible to emphasize that only the patients with AVF and 400 ml/min reached the objective of 45 L of Kt. The patients with AVF needed to increase 12 minutes of hemodialysis with a Qb of 350 ml/min and 28 minutes with a Qb of 300 ml/min; the catheters on normal position needed to increase 24 minutes and finally in the inverted catheters an increase of 59 minutes was necessary to reach the same Kt objective. We concluded that the patients dialyzed with central catheters on average needed to increase by 30 minutes the time of dialysis if the catheter worked in a normal position but 60 minutes if the arterio-venous lines were inverted so as to reach the minimum dose of dialysis.


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